Like other deserts and grasslands with arid climates in the world,
As early as thousands of years ago, Bedouin led livestock to live in deserts and grasslands chasing water and grass, thus forming a unique cultural tradition and lifestyle.
However, it is such an ethnic group with a long history that has been shrinking under the impact of the tide of modern civilization after the Industrial Revolution, the population is declining, and the tradition is annihilated.
The Bedouins are disappearing.
The name "Bedouin" is a transliteration of the Arabic word Badawīn, and its root Badw means "desert, tent", so it is not difficult to infer
As early as 6000 BC, the Bedouins began to engage in nomadic, fishing and agricultural activities in the Syrian grasslands, and left their mark in ancient documents-the "Bible · Old Testament"
In the nomadic process, the Bedouin mainly
Around 850 BC,
How did the nomadic Bedouin collect "protection money"? This is naturally related to their military advantage.
As a nomadic tribe that lives by water and grass, the Bedouins do not have a standing army and judicial system like permanent residents to maintain law and order.
The Bedouin poet Al-Kutami of the Umayyad dynasty once wrote: "Our livelihood depends on launching surprise attacks on enemies and even our neighbors, and when there is no one to plunder, we Then we will launch a surprise attack on our own brother." It can be seen that
With the passage of time, more and more countries with fixed residents as the main body appeared on the land of the Middle East. These political entities with standing armies became stronger and stronger, and the Bedouin gradually could no longer looting wantonly.
Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta pointed out in his work that on his way from Egypt to Gaza in 1326, the Mamluk dynasty that ruled Egypt at that time had a customs on the northern coast of the Sinai Peninsula.
However, once the power of the resident country declines or the security system is paralyzed, the Bedouins will start plundering again.
From September to late October 1757, four Bedouin tribes attacked the Hajj regiment led by Hussein Pasha bin Makki, the governor of Damascus in the Ottoman Empire. Although the Hajj regiment is protected by the Ottoman army,
After entering the 19th century, with the wave of the Industrial Revolution, the arrival of new technologies and new inventions made the Ottoman Empire gradually stronger.
At the end of the 19th century, Osman Sudan Abdul Hamid II introduced the Circassians from the Balkans and the Caucasus, and allowed them to settle in the "unowned land" of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine.
19世纪末，奥斯曼苏丹·阿卜杜勒·哈米德二世（Osman Sudan Abdul Hamid II）从巴尔干和高加索地区引进了切尔克斯人，并允许他们定居在叙利亚，黎巴嫩，约旦和巴勒斯坦的“无主之地”。
At the same time, due to the increasing influence of the British and French and other European powers in the Middle East, many areas that originally belonged to the Ottoman Empire have been reduced to British and French colonies.
In order to prevent further penetration by countries such as Britain and France,
With the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and the deepening of British and French colonial powers, the Middle East was divided into several countries.
After Britain and France and other countries withdrew from the Middle East due to the decline of the country during World War II, the original colonies gradually gained independence.
Under the influence of the “carrot and stick” policy and the shrinkage of pastures due to environmental damage,
For example, most Bedouins in Syria settled in between 1958 and 1961
Affected by this, the proportion of Bedouins still living a traditional nomadic life in Syria’s total population dropped from 13% in 1930 to 7% in 1953.
After the escalation of the war, the Bedouins in Syria could hardly live in chasing waters and grasses everywhere. Their priority in life is no longer to take care of the herds.
As the armed conflict continues, the feed required by the herds has become increasingly difficult to obtain, and the veterinary services provided by the Syrian government have become increasingly difficult to maintain.
In addition, the Bedouins caught between the parties to the conflict are also facing targeted attacks from Syrian government forces and the "Islamic State".
For example, in 2018, Syrian government forces bombed the Bedouin tribe’s tents and pastures near the city of Palmyra and claimed that they were members of the “Islamic State”.
Right now, the Syrian war, which has lasted for nearly 10 years, still shows no sign of ending.