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正版365官方网站-这个沙漠民族,正在消失



发布日期:2021-04-01 00:03:03 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

Like other deserts and grasslands with arid climates in the world,

像世界上其他干旱气候的沙漠和草原一样,

As early as thousands of years ago, Bedouin led livestock to live in deserts and grasslands chasing water and grass, thus forming a unique cultural tradition and lifestyle.

早在数千年前,贝都因人就曾带领牲畜生活在沙漠和草原上,他们追逐水草,从而形成了独特的文化传统和生活方式。

However, it is such an ethnic group with a long history that has been shrinking under the impact of the tide of modern civilization after the Industrial Revolution, the population is declining, and the tradition is annihilated.

但是,这种历史悠久的族群在工业革命后的现代文明浪潮的影响下一直在萎缩,人口在减少,传统被消灭了。

The Bedouins are disappearing.

贝都因人正在消失。

The name "Bedouin" is a transliteration of the Arabic word Badawīn, and its root Badw means "desert, tent", so it is not difficult to infer

“ Bedouin”这个名字是阿拉伯单词Ba​​dawīn的音译,bet356英国在线体育投注其根Badw的意思是“沙漠,帐篷”,因此不难推断

As early as 6000 BC, the Bedouins began to engage in nomadic, fishing and agricultural activities in the Syrian grasslands, and left their mark in ancient documents-the "Bible · Old Testament"

早在公元前6000年,贝都因人就开始在叙利亚草原从事游牧,捕鱼和农业活动,并在古代文献《圣经·旧约》中留下了自己的印记。

In the nomadic process, the Bedouin mainly

在游牧过程中,贝都因人主要

Around 850 BC,

公元前850年左右,

How did the nomadic Bedouin collect "protection money"? This is naturally related to their military advantage.

游牧的贝都因人如何收取“保护金”?这自然与他们的军事优势有关。

As a nomadic tribe that lives by water and grass, the Bedouins do not have a standing army and judicial system like permanent residents to maintain law and order.

作为一个以水草为生的游牧部落,贝都因人没有像常住居民这样的常备军和司法系统来维护法律和秩序。

Over time,

随着时间的推移,

The Bedouin poet Al-Kutami of the Umayyad dynasty once wrote: "Our livelihood depends on launching surprise attacks on enemies and even our neighbors, and when there is no one to plunder, we Then we will launch a surprise attack on our own brother." It can be seen that

Umayyad王朝的贝都因人诗人Al-Kutami曾写道:“我们的生计有赖于对敌人甚至我们的邻居发动突袭,而当没有人要掠夺时,我们将对自己的兄弟发动突袭。 ”可以看出

With the passage of time, more and more countries with fixed residents as the main body appeared on the land of the Middle East. These political entities with standing armies became stronger and stronger, and the Bedouin gradually could no longer looting wantonly.

随着时间的流逝,越来越多的以固定居民为主体的国家出现在中东地区。这些拥有常备军的政治实体变得越来越强大,贝都因人逐渐无法再大肆掠夺。

Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta pointed out in his work that on his way from Egypt to Gaza in 1326, the Mamluk dynasty that ruled Egypt at that time had a customs on the northern coast of the Sinai Peninsula.

摩洛哥旅行者伊本·巴图塔(Ibn Battuta)在他的作品中指出,bet356英国在线体育投注在1326年从埃及到加沙的途中,当时统治埃及的马穆鲁克王朝在西奈半岛的北海岸拥有习俗。

However, once the power of the resident country declines or the security system is paralyzed, the Bedouins will start plundering again.

但是,一旦居住国的权力下降或安全系统瘫痪,贝都因人将再次开始掠夺。

From September to late October 1757, four Bedouin tribes attacked the Hajj regiment led by Hussein Pasha bin Makki, the governor of Damascus in the Ottoman Empire. Although the Hajj regiment is protected by the Ottoman army,

1757年9月至10月下旬,四个贝都因人部落袭击了由奥斯曼帝国大马士革总督侯赛因·帕夏·本·麦基领导的朝Ha军团。尽管朝j军团受到奥斯曼帝国军队正版365官方网站的保护,

After entering the 19th century, with the wave of the Industrial Revolution, the arrival of new technologies and new inventions made the Ottoman Empire gradually stronger.

进入19世纪后,随着工业革命的浪潮,新技术和新发明的出现使奥斯曼帝国逐渐变得更加强大。

At the end of the 19th century, Osman Sudan Abdul Hamid II introduced the Circassians from the Balkans and the Caucasus, and allowed them to settle in the "unowned land" of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine.

19世纪末,奥斯曼苏丹·阿卜杜勒·哈米德二世(Osman Sudan Abdul Hamid II)从巴尔干和高加索地区引进了切尔克斯人,并允许他们定居在叙利亚,黎巴嫩,约旦和巴勒斯坦的“无主之地”。

At the same time, due to the increasing influence of the British and French and other European powers in the Middle East, many areas that originally belonged to the Ottoman Empire have been reduced to British and French colonies.

同时,由于英,法和其他欧洲大国在中东的影响力日益增强,许多最初属于奥斯曼帝国的地区已沦为英,法殖民地。

In order to prevent further penetration by countries such as Britain and France,

为了防止英国和法国等国家进一步渗透,

With the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and the deepening of British and French colonial powers, the Middle East was divided into several countries.

随着奥斯曼帝国的瓦解和英法殖民势力的加深,中东被分为几个国家。

After Britain and France and other countries withdrew from the Middle East due to the decline of the country during World War II, the original colonies gradually gained independence.

在第二次世界大战期间,英国,法国和其他国家因中东的衰败而从中东撤离后,原始殖民地逐渐获得了独立。

Under the influence of the “carrot and stick” policy and the shrinkage of pastures due to environmental damage,

在“胡萝卜坚持”政策和环境破坏导致的牧场缩水的影响下,

For example, most Bedouins in Syria settled in between 1958 and 1961

例如,叙利亚的大多数贝都因人于1958年至1961年之间定居

Affected by this, the proportion of Bedouins still living a traditional nomadic life in Syria’s total population dropped from 13% in 1930 to 7% in 1953.

受此影响,在叙利亚总人口中仍过着传统游牧生活的贝都因人比例从1930年的13%降至1953年的7%。

however,

然而,

After the escalation of the war, the Bedouins in Syria could hardly live in chasing waters and grasses everywhere. Their priority in life is no longer to take care of the herds.

战争升级后,叙利亚的贝都因人几乎无法住在各地追逐水草的地方。他们一生的重中之重不再是照顾畜群。

As the armed conflict continues, the feed required by the herds has become increasingly difficult to obtain, and the veterinary services provided by the Syrian government have become increasingly difficult to maintain.

随着武装冲突的继续,牧群所需的饲料变得越来越难,叙利亚政府提供的兽医服务也越来越难以维护。

In addition, the Bedouins caught between the parties to the conflict are also facing targeted attacks from Syrian government forces and the "Islamic State".

此外,被卷入冲突各方之间的贝都因人也面临着叙利亚政府军和“伊斯兰国”的有针对性的袭击。

For example, in 2018, Syrian government forces bombed the Bedouin tribe’s tents and pastures near the city of Palmyra and claimed that they were members of the “Islamic State”.

例如,在2018年,叙利亚政府军在帕尔米拉市附近轰炸了贝都因部落的帐篷和牧场,并声称他们是“伊斯兰国”的成员。

Right now, the Syrian war, which has lasted for nearly 10 years, still shows no sign of ending.

目前,已经持续了近十年的叙利亚战争仍然没有结束的迹象。

 
 
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